||In the hot forging industry, die life is an important process factor because of the cost involved in lost production, replacement of die blocks and operative handling of the dies. There is still no consensus, however, on the type of wear affecting dies or the dominant mechanisms for die failure, which varies from one situation to another. This metallographic study of a failed industrial hot forging die used to forge gas cylinder valves has indicated various failure modes. Although plastic deformation and thermal fatigue are usually quoted as the main causes of damage, oxidative and abrasive wear, fatigue cracking and chipping appeared to bet he most important in this study. Feedback coupling of fatigue and wear effects are detected. Detailed Scanning Electron Microscopy observations and Energy-Dispersive X-ray and optical profilometry analysis suggest that these failures might very depending on their localization on the die surfaces and show a complex mechanisms related to the variation of process parameters.