||Mechanical fastening is still one of the main methods used for joining components. Different techniques have been applied to reduce the effect of stress concentration of notches like fastener holes. In this work we evaluate the feasibility of combining laser shock peening (LSP) and cold expansion to improve fatigue crack initiation and propagation of open hole specimens made of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy. LSP is a new and competitive technique for strengthening metals, and like cold expansion, induces a compressive residual stress field that improves fatigue, wear and corrosion resistance. For LSP treatment, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with infrared radiation was used. Residual stress distribution as a function of depth was determined by the contour method. Compact tension specimens with a hole at the notch tip were subjected to LSP process and cold expansion and then tested under cyclic loading with R=0.1 generating fatigue cracks on the hole surface. Fatigue crack initiation and growth is analyzed and associated with the residual stress distribution generated by both treatments. It is observed that both methods are complementary; cold expansion increases fatigue crack initiation life, while LSP reduces fatigue crack growth rate.